COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT AND LIVELIHOODS
In December 2021, Feed the Future Innovation Lab for Markets, Risk and Resilience (MRR), (erstwhile BASIS) requested IDA to conduct MRR BASIS Survey. This was a study on the resilience of the Nepali rural households – that were supported by Heifer International’s Livestock Transfer Program (BASIS) – that had been undertaken between 2014 and 2018. The project aimed to examine the resilience of the Heifer-supported beneficiaries in the midst of the covid-19 pandemic. Undertaken as a research consortium with University of Illinois and University of Georgia, MRR BASIS survey was in the form of a telephone survey with 1,300 female smallholder farmers across 37 villages in 5 different districts of Nepal.
In 2018/19, through the support of JICA, IDA conducted a research study on community organizations by examining community mobilization models of Community Mobilization Project (CMP) and Saamudayik Bikaas Tatha Hariyali Aayojana (SABIHAA). The study adopted a mixed approach and employed a qualitative-quantitative method, conducting individual surveys, institutional surveys, FGDs and KIIs.
In 2017/18, under Livestock Systems Innovation Lab (LSIL) which was supported by USAID and implemented by Heifer International, IDA undertook two baseline surveys in consortium with University of Florida, USA. Designed as a randomized control trial, the implementation and the study focused on the cooperative leaders and Self-Help Groups (SHG). The sample size of SHG members was 2,880 and it was spread across 24 districts and across 120 cooperatives. The survey covered areas related to income, assets, expenditure, health, nutrition and food security, women’s empowerment, financial inclusion, aspirations and hope, trust and trust worthiness, and livestock practices.
In 2018, IDA conducted an end-line survey with the
University of Georgia, USA for of the BASIS project was implemented by Heifer
International. The project aimed to improve the livelihood of rural households
by increasing their social capital and production of farm families, and to
provide evidence based recommendation for future project designing. For the
end-line survey, the sample comprised of 3,200 respondents spread across 5
implementation districts of Palpa, Tanahu, Rautahat, Sarlahi and Mahottari
The Individual Deprivation Measure (IDM) survey was a gendered and multidimensional approach to measuring poverty and deprivation at the individual level as opposed to measuring poverty at the household level. Undertaken by IDA from August to December 2016 for the International Women’s Development Agency (IWDA), Australia. The survey was administered to a sample of 800 households and 2,225 individual surveys of whom 971 were males and 1,254 were females. The sample was spread across 16 districts.
ENERGY AND HYDROPOWER
Connecting Climate Goals with Local Realities in Nepal: Analyzing Energy Poverty and Changing Patterns of Energy Access in the Era of Climate Change (January 2023 – December 2026)
The Swedish Academy-funded four-year project is a joint undertaking of IDA and Lund University in Sweden. Commenced in 2023, this research project aims to advance knowledge on the relationships between energy transition and energy access in the context of Nepal. The study aims at contributing to the need for data and knowledge on energy access, energy poverty, and energy transition amidst the global realities of climate change that have ramifications on several areas of sustainable development goals, including energy access (SDG 7).
Designed as a concurrent mixed-method approach, the study will employ a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods for data collection and analysis. A nationwide household energy survey together with several focused group discussions, key informant interviews, and consultative meetings have been planned. IDA, in concert with the research team at Lund University, will also be responsible for bringing out the findings of the study in the form of reports and academic journals.
Pumped Storage Hydropower in the Himalayas: Accelerating the Transition to Zero or Low Carbon Electricity Grids (October 2022 – December 2023)
Pumped Storage Hydropower in the Himalayas is an initiative of the Australian Water Partnership to promote the transition to zero or low-carbon electricity grids in the Himalayas namely, Nepal, Bhutan, and Sikkim State of India. IDA is a consortium partner of the research project led by the Australian National University. The objective of the project is to examine the potential for pumped storage hydropower (PSH) to contribute to Electrical Energy Storage and broader renewable energy objectives and needs in the Himalayas.
The project has envisaged a longer-term engagement in the Himalaya region. The first phase of the study spanning between October 2022 to December 2023 has been designed to support energy ministries and other government agencies to advance GEDSI inclusive policy and institutional mechanisms that facilitate the uptake of feasible and sustainable PSH solutions. IDA is responsible for leading the study for Nepal.
As a consortium partner, IDA’s responsibilities include drafting the State of Knowledge (SOK) report and GEDSI inclusion plan for Nepal, identifying key stakeholders for Nepal undertaking focussed discussions with the stakeholders, facilitating and coordinating in-country site visits in Nepal, and facilitating national-level workshops and knowledge sharing programs with stakeholders.
In 2019/20, IDA conducted a Political Economy Study of Energy and Hydropower in Nepal for the World Bank. The study aimed to gain a deeper understanding of the socio-political context of the energy sector of Nepal and of the institutional and stakeholder dynamics that could affect the policy reforms of the sector.
Qualitative methods were employed for the study which comprised a review of pertinent literature and interviews with Key Informants. IDA undertook more than 30 interviews with key informants associated with 9 stakeholder groups. The identified stakeholder groups included policymakers/politicians, Nepal Electricity Authority (NEA), trade union of NEA, other governmental agencies/parastatals, market players, civil society and civic organizations, independent academics, media, and provincial and local governments.
GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE PREVENTION AND WOMEN’S EMPOWERMENT
Baseline and Endline Study of Gender-based Violence Prevention and Response (GBVPR) Phase II (2022-2025)
IDA is in a research consortium with Emory University for the baseline, endline, and operational research of Gender-based Violence Prevention and Response (GBVPR) Phase II program in Koshi and Sudurpaschim Provinces of Nepal. The project launched by UNFPA aims at reducing all forms of gender-based violence and harmful practices against women and girls in the two provinces.
In March and April, 2022, IDA was involved in the baseline data collection of the GBVPR Phase II program. The baseline survey employed a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods of data collection. The quantitative data collection included surveys with (i) school-going adolescents (300 girls and 300 boys), (ii) spouses/partners (600 wives and 600 husbands), (iii) community members (600 adult women and 600 adult men), (iv) GBV related service providers (208 providers) and (iv) female GBV survivors (240 survivors). Similarly, the qualitative data collection included (i) FGDs with school-going adolescent girls and boys, (ii) IDIs with spouses (wives and husbands), and (iii) IDIs with health, psychosocial support, shelter, and justice service providers.
Household enumeration was conducted prior to conducting the baseline survey.
Women’s Empowerment Metric for National Statistical System (WEMNS) aims at capturing standardized gender data on empowerment. The tools for WEMNS are being developed by International Food Policy Research Institute together with the World Bank’s Living Standards Measurement Survey (LSMS) and Emory University. This framework envisions supporting the measurement of countries’ Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 5, and, therefore, aims to improve the availability and quality of data on women’s empowerment and gender equality. WEMNS is a novel study targeted for use in nationally representative surveys as a part of the national statistical system.
As a global undertaking, three rounds of the WEMNS survey were held concurrently in Bangladesh, Malawi, and Nepal. Rollins School of Public Health at Emory University and Inter Disciplinary Analysts (IDA) at Kathmandu jointly undertook the WEMNS survey in Nepal.
While the first round of the WEMNS survey in Nepal was held between September and December, 2021, the second round was underway in April and May, 2022. The earlier two rounds were conducted remotely via telephone interviewing. The third and final round of the survey was a face-to-face (FTF) survey and was undertaken in November 2022.
A sampling frame of 5,754 individuals from 57 clusters (Wards) of Rupandehi and Kapilvastu districts of Nepal was derived from a household census (enumeration). Phone interviews with 5,754 individuals were attempted during the first phase of the survey. A total of 2,443 interviews were successful. The second phase of the phone survey tried to reach out to 2,443 individuals that were successfully interviewed in the first phase. A total of 1,989 phone interviews were successfully completed for the second phase.
For the FTF survey, a frame of 9,283 eligible households (households with at least an adult male and an adult female members aged 18 to 64 years) of Rupandehi and Kapilvastu districts was obtained from quick count. A total of 814 households were selected randomly from the frame. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with three sets of respondents within a household – a primary respondent and two individual respondents – using SurveySolutions (SuSo) android software.
End-line survey of Joint Program for Accelerating Progress Towards Economic Empowerment of Rural Women (JPRWEE) (August 2020-February 2021)
From August 2020 to February 2021, IDA conducted the End-line survey of Joint Program for Accelerating Progress Towards Economic Empowerment of Rural Women (JPRWEE) for IFAD. JPRWEE is a joint undertaking of IFAD, FAO, UN Women, and WFP. JPRWEE Phase I was implemented in Sarlahi and Rautahat districts of Nepal from 2015 to 2020 and aimed at empowering the rural women through improved food security and nutrition, increased income and sustainable livelihoods, enhanced leadership, and gender-responsive policies. For the study, IDA undertook an enumeration of around 3,000 households from the beneficiary and non-beneficiary groups. A systematic sample was designed from the household enumeration and the end-line survey was administered to a sample of 1300 households in Sarlahi and Rautahat districts. IDA considered the program intervention modality and effect size to come up with the required sample size. The study was primarily based on Pro-WEAI domains (Project level – Women Empowerment in Agriculture Index) and GALS (Gender Action Learning System).
Impact Evaluation of the Tipping Point Project (TPP) in Nepal: An Intervention to Prevent Early Child Marriage (January 2019 – December 2021)
The CARE Nepal-implemented Tipping Point Program (TPP) (2019-2021) aimed to prevent child early and forced marriage in Kapilvastu and Rupandehi districts of Nepal by addressing social norms, attitudes, and behaviors and promoting collection action among adolescent girls themselves and demand their rights.
IDA conducted the baseline and end-line studies for the Impact Evaluation of Tipping Point Program (TPP) in collaboration with the Rollin School of Public Health at Emory University from 2019 to 2021. The study was undertaken to understand the effects of TPP interventions in a cluster-randomized controlled trial setting using a mixed methods approach. While the baseline was underway in 2019, the endline was completed in December 2021. The baseline and end-line sample consisted of around 2,400 panel respondents divided equally between adolescent girls and boys. The survey also included panel interviews with 540 parents.
Baseline, Midline and Endline Study of Strengthening Access to Holistic, Gender Responsive, and Accountable Justice (SAHAJ) Project (2019-2021) in Nepal
The SAHAJ project aimed to address the root causes of Gender Based Violence (GBV) and enhance the security and justice system’s capacity to offer protection and assistance to the most-risk women and girls in Nepal through family-centered, school-centered, and grassroots-based accountability approaches. As a part of the larger Integrated Program for Strengthening Security and Justice in Nepal (IPSSJ), the program was supported by FCDO and implemented by VSO and International Alert in the Terai regions of Madhesh and Lumbini Provinces.
SAHAJ study aimed to understand the effects and outcomes of interventions and justice works in preventing and alleviating GBV in a randomized controlled trial setting by adopting a mixed methods approach. IDA worked in a research consortium with Emory University for the implementation of baseline, midline, and endline surveys of the SAHAJ study.
Prior to the implementation of the baseline and subsequently the endline, IDA undertook the enumeration of 4,050 households spread across 18 different clusters of 7 different districts of Madhesh and Lumbini Provinces. The Network Survey was the major highlight of the midline study. While the baseline was undertaken in 2019, the end-line study was completed in 2021.
In 2016/17, IDA undertook three surveys for ‘Change Starts at Home’ which was implemented by Equal Access and supported by DFID. The project worked with couples, families, and community leaders to drive a change in community attitudes towards violence against women and girls. The survey had a sample size of 1,440 married couple and was conducted in three districts- Chitwan, Nawalparasi, and Kapilvastu, in control as well as intervention VDCs.
MARKET SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT, ECONOMY AND BUSINESS CLIMATE STUDIES
In partnership with The Asia Foundation (TAF), from 2009 to 2011, IDA undertook two business climate surveys in Nepal, Business Climate Survey in Nepal 2009 and Business Climate Survey in Nepal 2010. The main objective of both surveys was to gauge the business climate of Nepal. While generating basic data on businesses and industries, the Business Climate Surveys also tried to assess the level of confidence of the business communities, including their orientations to the future.
For the sampling purpose, industries/enterprises were stratified based on their contribution to GDP. Categories of industries were classified as per the International Standard Industrial Code (ISIC). Over 1,000 micro, small, and medium enterprises distributed equally across four districts – Morang, Kaski, Rupandehi and Banke were selected for both surveys. The second round of the survey, however, comprised a 20 percent panel sample. A descriptive-analytical report titled Nepal Business Climate Survey: 2010 Report was published in April 2011. This report is in the public domain.
In March 2021, following the COVID-19 pandemic, IDA conducted a phone survey for The Asia Foundation. The survey aimed to identify the public’s experience and concerns during the Covid-19 pandemic as well as document how the public evaluated the country’s economic condition and their situation at the time of the pandemic, as well as assess the impact of the pandemic on women, people with disability, and marginalized group. This perception survey was undertaken with a nationally representative sample of 1,540 respondents spread across 7 provinces of Nepal.
South Asian Region (SARS) COVID-19 Phone Survey Round 2 and Living Standard Measurement Plus (LSMS Plus) Survey (August 2021 – June 2022)
During the COVID pandemic, IDA conducted a World Bank-funded second round of the South Asian Region (SAR) COVID-19 Phone Survey and Living Standard Measurement Plus (LSMS Plus) Survey. Undertaken in September and October, 2021, the nationwide survey attempted to document socio-economic impact of the pandemic and track the recovery trajectory of the individuals.
SAR COVID-19 Phone Survey was a panel survey undertaken through Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing (CATI). The survey approached 6,389 respondents who were selected in the baseline through Random Digit Dialing. Four thousand five hundred and sixty-eight (4,568) respondents were successfully interviewed.
Similarly, LSMS Plus Survey approached 2,177 respondents that were interviewed in the earlier round of SAR COVID-19 Phone Survey to achieve a targeted sample size of 1800 individuals. LSMS Plus survey had questions on empowerment (WEMNS) primarily related to time use agency, income and assets, social capital, and information and technology. This survey occurred in April and May 2022.
Baseline and Mid-line Survey of Nepal Agricultural Market Development Program (NAMDP) Phase II (2020-2024)
Nepal Agricultural Market Development Program (NAMDP) Phase II (also known as Sahaj) is a project designed to support the inclusive agriculture markets in Nepal and is funded by Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC). With a strategic focus on Koshi Province, the SDC-funded program has been implemented by Swisscontact in consortium with Center for Environmental and Agricultural Policy Research, Extension, and Development (CEAPRED). The project seeks to (i) support enabling market environment for agri-SMEs, (ii) strengthen their commercial capacity and networks, and (iii)engage with agriculture and non-agriculture service providers such that the agri-SMEs realize increased value addition and innovation. The project aims to increase employment opportunities and income of women and men (including that of disadvantaged groups) as a result of increased performance and growth of agri-businesses. NAMDP Phase II has focused on four different value chains (sectors), viz. maize, dairy, large cardamom, and vegetables.
IDA undertook the Business Climate cum Baseline Survey of the NAMDP II Project with the agri-business associated with the four aforementioned sectors. The baseline survey was conducted remotely (through telephone interviews) from August 12, 2020 to September 3, 2020. ODK platform was used for the data collection and some 250 business entrepreneurs of the aforementioned sectors were interviewed. Before conducting the interviews, IDA made a concerted effort on preparing the sampling frame of the enterprises related to 4 agricultural sectors established in 12 different districts of Koshi Province.
IDA also undertook the midline study of the program to inform the project’s midline evaluation.
In 2015, IDA conducted two financial inclusion surveys. The first financial inclusion survey in early 2015 was conducted before the 2015 earthquake and undertaken with the support of DANIDA, DFID, UNCDF, and Fin Mark Trust. It measured profile levels of financial access and use of its services by all bankable adults across income ranges and other demographics. The sample size for this survey was over 4000 respondents and it was conducted across 71 districts.
The second survey after the earthquake was conducted with the support of UNCDF. The sample size for this survey was study was a subset of the first nationwide survey and comprised of 768 respondents from 14 most earthquake affected districts.
In 2015/16, IDA conducted a baseline study for UNNATI’s sub-component on Rural Transport which was supported by Nepal-Denmark Development Cooperation. The project focused on promoting sustainable inclusive growth by reducing poverty and raising living standards by supporting farmers and working with market forces such as banks, businesses and entrepreneurs. For the study, IDA employed a mixed qualitative and quantitative approach. As a part of the quantitative approach, a survey comprising of 1,400 respondents was undertaken. One of the main components of UNNATI was upgrading/constructing rural roads and IDA conducted a baseline for the road component.
Baseline survey for the CGIAR Initiative: NEXUS Gains: Realizing Multiple Benefits Across Water, Energy, Food and Ecosystems (Forests, Biodiversity) (October 2022-March 2023)
Nexus Gains is a multi-topic study on water, energy, agriculture, food security and nutrition, empowerment, climate action, and environmental sustainability. IDA conducted the baseline survey of Nexus Gains for the International Food Policy and Research Institute (IFPRI). Intra-household and community surveys were implemented in 84 rural villages of Madhesh and Karnali Provinces in February and March 2023. The Nexus study had a sample size of 1,008 households, 2,016 respondents, and 84 community members.
PUBLIC OPINION SURVEYS
Through The Asia Foundation Partnership with Australian Government, Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT) on Subnational Governance in Nepal, IDA successfully completed undertaking four nation-wide surveys, Survey of Nepali People (SNP) - in 2017, 2018, 2020 and 2022. The Survey of Nepali People in 2022 was also co-funded by Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation.
The longitudinal survey series had a sample size of over 7,000 respondents spread across 7 provinces of Nepal. The purpose of the survey is to (1) provide policy-makers and the broader public with rigorous data, reflecting the views of the Nepali people on the direction of the country, and on security, governance, politics, social relations, and the economy, and (2) provide in-depth information over time on how Nepal’s new local government organizations are functioning. Survey of the Nepali People has been jointly published by KUSoA, IDA and TAF. The reports, along with the raw data, is available in the public domain and in IDA’s website.
From 2004 to 2015, IDA undertook eleven nationwide public opinion surveys called "Nepal Contemporary Political Situation (NCPS)". The NCPS survey series, a nationwide longitudinal survey with a sample size of 3,000 respondents aged 18 and above was undertaken by rigorous sampling design.
Seven of the surveys were exclusively supported by The Asia Foundation (TAF) (NCPS I, II, III, IV, IX, X, and XI) and one was co-supported jointly by TAF and the UK’s DFID (NCPS V). Three of the NCPS Surveys (NCPS VI, VII, and VIII) were supported by USAID.
The NCPS series reports (NCPS I to VIII) have been
published and are in the public domain, the rest are in the public domain in
the form of reports or power point presentations. It had been greatly
used by many journalists and opinion writers in their columns. It was widely
acclaimed by researchers, academics, politicians, journalists, senior civil
servants, and parliamentarians for having been a valuable longitudinal
dataset, the only one of its kind that tracked Nepali public opinion over
Supported by Inter news Network and NDI, IDA conducted three nationwide public opinion surveys from 2013-2014 called ‘Public Opinion on Political Parties and Electoral Legislative Process’. The surveys were undertaken to document public opinion on various political issues such as overall direction of the country, main problems at the national and local levels, expectations from the Constituent Assembly, federalism, decentralization, governance, media, etc. The survey had a sample size ranging from 3,000 to 4,000 and was spread across over 40 districts of the country.
In 2010/2011, under the project Nepal Transition Initiative (NTI) funded by USAID and implemented by Chemonics International, IDA conducted three nationwide public opinion surveys called ‘Rolling Public Opinion Poll’. The survey covered issues of contemporary politics and aspects that the public wanted prioritized in the constitution being formulated. The survey employed a random sample of 3,000 respondents that were spread across 35 districts in Nepal.
Aid and Recovery in Post-Earthquake Nepal: Independent Impacts and Recovery Monitoring (IRM) (2015-2020)
The Independent Impacts and Recovery Monitoring (IRM) for Accountability in Post-Earthquake Nepal was a joint undertaking of IDA and The Asia Foundation (TAF). Supported by FCDO (then DFID) and SDC, five surveys were undertaken after the 2015 earthquake and spanning up to 2019. The survey focussed to track longer-term disaster response related to effectiveness and accountability on aid, economy and livelihoods, protection, vulnerability, and resilience, and politics and leadership. Constituting a panel, the survey series sought to follow up the same 4,850 households across 11 districts over the years. The report was jointly prepared by IDA and TAF.
SAFETY, SECURITY, PEACE AND CONFLICT STUDIES
Baseline, Mid-line and End-line survey of Integrated Program for Safety, Security and Justice (IPSSJ) (2015-2021)
The Integrated Program for Strengthening Security and Justice (IPSSJ) in Nepal was a 7-year program funded by FCDO and implemented by Palladium, UNOPS, VSO, and their local partners. Aimed at strengthening security and justice in Nepal, particularly for women, children, and other traditionally marginalized people, IPSSJ covered 55 districts across the country (almost all Terai districts and a few Hill districts).
IDA conducted the baseline, midline, and endline studies for the Monitoring, Evaluation, and Learning component of IPSSJ implemented by Palladium International Nepal. While the baseline was conducted in 2015, the midline study was held in 2017 and the endline was undertaken in 2021. The baseline, midline, and endline studies had a sample size of over 3,000 respondents spread across Saptari, Kapilvastu, Gorkha, and Achham districts.
In 2014-15, for GIZ, IDA conducted a perception survey amongst key stakeholders (high level civil servants, political leaders, former ministers of the Ministry of Peace and Reconstruction, civil society leaders, and the media) regarding the accomplishments of the Nepal-donor basket fund, Nepal Peace Trust Fund (NPTF) and the areas it needs to concentrate on in the near future.
From 2008-2011, IDA conducted four research
studies under Saferworld with the support of various donor organizations. IDA
undertook four nationwide surveys with a sample size of over 3000 respondents
spread across 30 districts in Nepal to track public’s perception of security
VOTER REGISTRATION STUDIES
Between October and December 2008, IDA conducted two simultaneous surveys - list-to-voters and voters-to-list survey - to assess the accuracy of the voters’ registry. This study was commissioned to IDA by Nepal Election Commission and was funded by DANIDA HUGOU. A total of 36,033 wards of all 3,914 erstwhile Village Development Committees (VDCs) and 58 erstwhile municipalities were used as the basis for this survey’s sample frame. Being exhaustive and rigorous these surveys had large sample sizes. The list-to-voters survey comprised 4,565 sampled voters spread across 64 districts whereas the voters-to-list survey has a sample size of 7,572 individuals spread across 64 districts of Nepal. The analytical report along with the recommendations for ensuring the accuracy of the voters’ registry was submitted to Nepal Election Commission and DANIDA.
WATER RELATED STUDIES
“Water For All” was the water policy introduced by the Asian Development Bank in 2001. The policy aimed to recognize the Asia and Pacific region’s need to formulate and implement integrated, cross-sectoral approaches to water management and development.
In 2005, IDA was commissioned for a review of the ADB’s water policy in the context of Nepal. The role and involvement of ADB in the water supply and sanitation sector of Nepal were assessed.
The study examined the relevance, effectiveness, impact, and sustainability of the sampled ADB-funded projects in relation to its “Water for All” policy.
Scaling-up framework for community managed rural water supply and sanitation schemes in Nepal (June 2004 – January 2005)
In 2004, IDA undertook this study for Water Aid Nepal. The study identified the issues and formulated a framework for scaling-up of rural water supply and sanitation schemes in Nepal. The study was built on a qualitative research design that included Stakeholders’ consultation (workshops), and engagement with community members (FGDs and KIIs).
From 2013-2018, IDA conducted five perception surveys including a baseline survey and an end line assessment for the Sajhedari Bikaas Project (2012-2017) which was implemented by PACT and supported by USAID. The sample size for the baseline survey was 7,539, the rest of the surveys had a sample size of about 2,880 respondents.
In 2010/11, IDA in collaboration with Social Science Baha and with the support of DANIDA and DFID conducted a baseline study to generate baseline data for all the indicators of three projects: Governance Baseline Study of Human Rights Good Governance Programme, Enabling State Programme (ESP), and Rights, Democracy and Inclusion Fund (RDIF). For the study, IDA adopted a qualitative-quantitative research approach and undertook nationwide surveys, focused surveys, content analysis, key informant interviews, focus group discussion to identify key governance indicators in Nepal, their rationale, baseline and means of verification, and also reviewed global governance indices.